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Private International Law

URL: https://libguides.law.ucla.edu/privateinternational

Permanent Court of Arbitration

About the Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration is an arbitral tribunal located in the Hague. It was established by the 1899 and 1907 Conventions for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes.

Rules of the Permanent Court of Arbitration

The rules of the Permanent Court of Arbitration are reprinted in many sources. The most direct source is the PCA's own website:

Books and In-Depth Articles on the Permanent Court of Arbitration

Several books and detailed articles discuss the Permanent Court of Arbitration:

Searching Decisions by the Permanent Court of Arbitration 

Several sources also allow you to search Permanent Court of Arbitration decisions online or read them in print:

London Court of International Arbitration

Generally, the website of the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) is the best starting point for understanding LCIA arbitration:

Article 30 of the LCIA arbitration rules specifies that "[t]he parties undertake as a general principle to keep confidential all awards in the arbitration" and "[t]he LCIA does not publish any award or any part of an award without the prior written consent of all parties and the Arbitral Tribunal." Accordingly, access to prior LCIA awards is highly limited, with most databases of arbitral decisions including only a tiny handful of abstracts. However, Westlaw has compiled a collection of selected LCIA arbitration awards:

The preeminent arbitration treatises are good places to start for researching the LCIA. Most standard arbitration treatises include discussion of LCIA rules, integrated with other institutions' rules under discussions of general arbitration topics. 

A few sources provide more extended discussions specifically of the LCIA:

Swiss Rules

The Swiss Rules are the rules adopted by the Swiss Arbitration Centre (formerly the Swiss Chambers' Arbitration Institution, SCAI), a not-for-profit organization established by local Swiss Chambers of Commerce and the Swiss Arbitration Association (ASA).

The Centre maintains a website with many resources on its activities:

The following pages are especially helpful for researching the Swiss Rules:

Like most arbitration decisions, decisions under the Swiss Rules are confidential. Article 44(1) of the Swiss Rules prohibits the release of decisions except by express written consent of the parties. However, challenges to arbitration decisions may be brought before the Swiss Supreme Court, whose decisions are public.

The Swiss Arbitration website links to the following website for researching these decisions:

In addition to the free resources on the Swiss Arbitration website, many paid databases provide treatises on the Swiss Rules and arbitration in Switzerland:

Westlaw's Practical Law also includes helpful introductory articles for learning the basics about the Swiss Rules:

Finally, general arbitration treatises include chapters on the Swiss Rules: